Madara was born and raised in a world when it was very chaotic, ninja clans were far too numerous and there were constant war. He and his younger brother, Izuna, were equals in every way and they constantly competed to prove which was better. It was through their competitions that they gained the Sharingan, and later awakened the Mangekyou Sharingan; the first ones in the history of the clan to do so. They used their power to take control and unite the clan, with the elder brother, Madara, becoming the leader. Together they became famous and feared as one of the strongest clans, their rivals were the Senju.
As Madara was the first to discover the Mangekyou Sharingan, he was also the first to discover it's downside and went blind. He became depressed and desperate, using many different techniques trying to regain his vision but nothing worked. Izuna agreed to give him his eyes so that Madara could take care of the clan, and Madara asked for forgiveness when he took his brother's eyes to replace his own. By doing this he attained a new Mangekyou Sharingan, a fusion of the two brothers' that would never lose sight, and he gained a new Mangekyou Sharingan technique. Izuna unfortunately would die in battle some time later. Tired of the constant fighting, the Senju proposed a truce. Madara was weary of this because of their shared animosity and tried to convince the Uchiha that it would end in disaster, but no one else saw it that way and he reluctantly allied with the Senju.
He and the leader of the Senju clan, Hashirama, together made a deal with the Fire country and formed Konoha by uniting many clans, other countries quickly followed the one village/one country design that there was finally some stability and peace. But when time came to choose a leader of the village, everyone rallied behind Hashirama which made Madara angry and paranoid. He believed that the Uchiha had the right to rule and would become dogs of the Senju under Hashirama's rule, but his clan deserted him thinking that he was he was just greedy and power-hungry. He abandoned the village, but later returned with the Kyuubi under his control to get revenge. Madara ultimately died, but their battle was so great that it shaped what is now known as the "Valley of the End," and there are statues of Madara and Hashirama engraved on the sides of it's waterfall.
An ally of Madara continued Madara's ambitions using his name, but the real Madara would be brought back by Kabuto using the Impure World Resurrection technique to fight in the 4th ninja world war, to the shock of everyone. Together with Muu whom was being controlled by Kabuto, they faced down a branch of the alliance headed by Gaara and Onoki, with the help of one of Naruto's Shadow Clones. Madara evaded Gaara's attack and used Great Fire Annihilation against the alliance, multiple Suiton users tried to stop the attack only for Madara to emerge from the smoke and violently cut down his enemies. Onoki attempted to raise the ground to push Madara into Naruto's Chou Oodama Rasengan, but Madara countered with Susanoo. Naruto then used Sage Mode while Madara was distracted by the army, Gaara then used his sand to grab Madara by his feet and pull him out of Susanoo so that Naruto could hit him with the Rasenshuriken. It seemed to work, but Madara absorbed it using the Rinnegan; he attained it shortly before his death after taking some of Hashirama's D.N.A. during their battle. Wanting to test his power, Madara then caused an asteroid to fall from the sky.
Onoki attempted to stop it, only for Madara to surprise everyone with a second asteroid which injured Onoki and wiped out most of the division. Madara tried to summon the Kyuubi, but Kabuto revealed that it's currently sealed inside of Naruto. Madara then created a vast number of trees using Hashirama's Mokuton to attack the survivors, but Naruto managed to defend against the attack. Madara and Kabuto were about to attack, but were stopped by the sudden appearance of Tsunade and Ei who were teleported to the battlefield along with Mei. It was now Madara and Kabuto vs. the Five Kages. Tsunade began healing Gaara and Onoki while Ei and Mei attacked to buy her time, and other alliance ninjas attacked Kabuto. Madara dodged Mei's lava but was struck by Ei's punch and Mei attempted to bury Madara in lava but he defended with Susanoo. Madara tried to attack, but Gaara and Onoki blocked the attack together, and then Onoki piggybacked on Ei and used his Light-Weight Rock to make Ei faster, Kabuto tried to intercept but was sway aside and then Onoki used Added-Weight Rock to make Ei punch harder to send Madara and his Susanoo flying. Madara used Hashirama's power again, this time to grow immense flowering trees that produced a paralyzing pollen. Gaara tried to lift everyone out of it, but Madara used Susanoo to swat them down back and set the forest on fire around them, Onoki used his Jinton to destroy the trees and get rid of the fire. The Kages then attack again with Tsunade delivering a fatal blow to Madara, but it turns out to be a Wood Clone that Madara set up in the confusion and stabbed Tsunade, being near-immortal she broke off Susanoo's sword and tried to stab Madara with it, but to no avail. Madara retaliated by creating 25 Wood Clones, each using Susanoo. The Kages were able to hold their own against the army of Susanoos, but they were getting too worn down. So they devise another plan, they are able to destroy all of the Wood Clones and almost seal Madara, but he gets angered and reveals the colossal Perfect Susanoo, stating that only Hashirama can beat him.
Madara possesses the Uchiha clan's famed Sharingan and it's special abilities, including enhanced sensitivity to movement, seeing chakra, copying actions that are within his ability, as well as casting and recognizing illusions. He also attained the Mangekyou Sharingan by killing his friend, and later the Eternal Mangekyou Sharingan after attaining his brother's eyes. With these he's gifted with additional abilities, one of which being able to conjure Susanoo; a giant energy-based humanoid boasting great strength and endurance to protect Madara and fight on his behalf. After gaining Hashirama's D.N.A. his eyes changed again, becoming the Rinnegan. Aside from granting it's user all 5 elements, it possesses 6 abilities based on the 6 paths of Buddhist reincarnation: gravity manipulation (Deva), body modification (Asura), telepathy (Human), summoning (Animal), chakra absorption (Hungry Ghost), and resurrection (Hell). Having obtained Hashirama's power Madara is also capable of performing wood style jutsu by combining water based chakra with earth based chakra using life force as the medium between the two.
In addition to these, Madara possesses the Uchiha clan's secret jutsus which include Grand Fireball and Phoenix Flowers, as well as the superbly powerful Great Fire Annihilation. And when the Kyuubi wasn't sealed, Madara was able to summon the monster and bend it to his will.