1.It isn't because he never do it. Call that he is too hot-headed during the battle or something like that - doesn't matter, it shows different attitude before fight and in it. That is why it works against him - shows that Hal can't calm himself there. And it is also well known fact about him.
2.No, it doesn't. It shows that Hal HAD shield up when he met Hammond, not when or how it was putted on. My scans proved, that GLs doesn't have auto-tp-shields. BTW, in which comic it happened?
b)Yes, he needs. If it isn't auto-power (and it isn't going by my scans), then he doesn't have it from the start.
3.Oh, but he would drain/depower him, because he normally controls the energy. That is how dealt with his enemies in the past. For example, he depowered Cable when Nate had full control over his powers and Cable isn't even energy-type enemy. From top of my head, he drained Hulk and Uni-Lord. He used energy manipulation on other sources of energy to raise his chances against Proemial Gods and Drax to boost his offensive capabilities and ring is the only energy source to be manipulated here. And these are just ones of his most known fights.
4.Cosmic Awareness works. Period. Seriously if no, then here we have Norrin Radd, not SS, because there is no proof that Power cosmic exist in that universe. This is silly that we even talk about.
And Hal isn't close to Surfer when it comes to energy manipulation.
5.But it doesn't matter, as much as Surfer's creating black hole.
6.It is shown that he flies somewhere and it there is comment about his speed. Speed. Speed, so that he could come there that fast. It isn't reaction, it is no using power against someone, it is not defending himself nor anything like that.