Lemuel Gulliver is the protagonist of "Gulliver's Travels" (1726) by Jonathan Swift, a satirical novel. Gulliver is a surgeon who turned to the sea and served as captain in a series of ships. He survives a number of shipwrecks to end up lost in various strange lands, each giving him new perspective on human nature.
From 1699 to 1702, Gulliver resides in the lands of Lilliput and Blefuscu. The human beings there are only 6 inches/15cm tall and Gulliver finds himself a giant. Otherwise the locals have ideas and faults no different than the British of the time.Gulliver gains an outsider perspective of the petty arguments which drive people to ideological splits and wars.
From 1702 to 1706, Gulliver resides in Brobdingnag where the average man is 72 feet/22 meters tall. He finds himself considered a miniature and a spectacle of nature. He tries to introduce the use of gunpowder there but the local rulers are not impressed with that kind of "progress".
From 1706 to 1710, Gulliver resides in the flying island of Laputa were men are devoted in the pursuit of music and mathematics. He finds them unable to use their knowledge for any practical use and absent-minded enough to be unable to have regular conversations. He also takes time to visit other lands like the island of the Necromancers and the dwelling of the immortals. The former allow him to discuss with many famous and obscure figures who played parts in human history.
He gets a few lessons in the fact that history books do not always tell the truth of the matter. Gulliver originally envies the immortals until finding out they may be unable to die but are subject to all the ills of old age ... forever.
From 1710 to 1715, Gulliver ends up in the land of the Houyhnhnm, a race of sentient and highly intelligent horses. Also residing there are the Yahoos, uncivilized human creatures. They may lack culture but Gulliver recognizes in them all the faults the civilized man has failed to escape.
The Houyhnhnm at first marvel at seeing a Yahoo who is able to speak and think. But then decide to exile him before he uses said abilities for evil purposes, as all Yahoos are malignant. Gulliver returns to England and the wife and children he had left behind. But he now views all humanity as Yahoos, including his own family. He avoids contact with them as much as possible. He instead seeks the companion of horses, missing the Houyhnhnm. His story ends there.