Now that he no longer has them even those stored in the Golden Octobot, what now, what's his next step.
We already know from Superior Spider-man 3, while he still had Peters memories, his actions resulted in Carlie Cooper getting confirmation of who she suspects he really is (since issue 2 I suspect as a result of Amazing Spider-man 700), which resulted in her starting her investigation into proving it (Check Finally, someone knows Doc Ock is Spider-man!(Spoilers) for more on it)
In Superior Spider-man 10, his actions or I should say lack of, resulted in Mary Jane FINALLY becoming suspicious of him, and which could result in her confiding in Carlie and eventually joining in on the investigation. Lets not also forget what happened in Superior Spider-man 6 which although not to the extent of issue 10, I believe it to be the seed that started her down the road to the suspicion of Peter not being Peter. she even went as far as mentioning "She felt a sense of dread from Peter and not a spark of the guy she used to know & wondered if this is how Peters Spider sense felt like"
So the question is what might he do now to pull off being Peter, because I doubt it'll be easy.
Now, to the question of how he accessed those memories,
Some might have assumed that he could just access them like we do and would immediately know, but I have a feeling it more like accessing a filling system and could only be accessed if the situation warranted it and once he's access them, that memory would be stored in SpOck own memory, similar to copying a file from one folder to another. An example of that could be found in Superior Spider-man 4, where he had to "access" Peter memories in order to find out qualifications Peter had. and once he did he could was still able to remember to that he had to go to university to get his doctorate in Superior Spider-man 10.