Doctor Faustus' first appearance came in issue #107 of Captain America, where he attempted to drive Captain America insane. Faustus has a history of teaming with the notorious villain known as the Red Skull in plotting against Captain America.
Born in Vienna, he was a professional psychiatrist before becoming a criminal mastermind. His plots typically emotionally torture opponents, leaving them vulnerable or desperate. His signature move is having them effectively kill themselves when in this state of mind. In combats of witts he is usually a victor. However he suffered a humiliating defeat when trying to mentally influence Mr. Fantastic. Having his own mental breakdown upon his failure.
Some of Faustus' notable events in comic history include: Creating the villain know as Grand Director, involvement with the villain (at the time) Moonstone, and death of S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Sharon Carter (which was later addressed that she, in fact, did not die).
Faustus was presumed dead for a number of years, but most recently appeared in Captain America #22, now living undercover as a S.H.I.E.L.D. psychologist, at the employment of the Red Skull. Faustus was given the task of manipulating Sharon Carter's mind into falling deeply in love with Captain America. Something which he proudly claims is his doing. During his time working for the Skull he treats him with almost no respect and frequently talks down to him. This behavior infuriates the Skull because usually speaking to him like this would mean certain death for anyone but he can't have Faustus killed because of his importance to his plans.
It was also revealed within Captain America #25 that Faustus was responsible for manipulating Sharon Carter into assassinating Captain America.
Faustus also attempted to brainwash Winter Soldier to serve the Red Skull's purposes. When his methods of mental programming failed, he had planned to kill the Winter Soldier, only to have him escape due to an almost subconcious act of Sharon Carter, who was under Faustus' control. Faustus also brainwashed the Grand Director into believing that he was Steve Rogers so that the Skull could use him to help swing public opinion in favor of his candidate Senator Wright. After Sharon was stabbed by Sin and she lost the baby, Faustus betrayed the Skull and activated her S.H.I.E.L.D. transmitter before leaving the hidden base because he didn't want any of his creations to "fall into the hands of those monsters".
Faustus has a genius level intellect, a doctorate in psychiatry and a highly persuasive voice. He is charismatic enough to win the trust of patients and allies, before inadvertently using them in his plans. While a skilled hypnotist, his more elaborate plans have employed "hologram projectors, hallucinogenic gas dispensers, androids, and elaborate props'. Even pawns impersonating various people important to his victims (friends, enemies, etc).
During a confrontation with Captain America and Daredevil, Faustus was injured by falling gas canisters. He lost the mobility of his legs. He was afterwards mostly seen wheelchair-bound, sort of a villainous counterpart to Professor X. More recent appearances have him walking around while using a cane.